CAS No.7647-14-5 Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride

Name Sodium chloride
CAS Registry Number 7647-14-5
Molecular Structure Sodium chloride   7647-14-5
Molecular Formula ClNa
Molecular Weight

CAS 7647-14-5 Wiki / 7647-14-5 MSDS

Sodium chloride
NaCl polyhedra.png
IUPAC name
Sodium chloride
Other names
  • Common salt
  • Halite
  • Rock salt
  • Saline
  • Sodium chloride
  • Table salt
  • Regular salt
  • Sea salt
CAS Number
  • 7647-14-5 YesY
3D model (JSmol)
  • Interactive image
Beilstein Reference
  • CHEBI:26710 YesY
  • 5044 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.726
EC Number 231-598-3
Gmelin Reference
  • D02056 YesY
MeSH Sodium+chloride
PubChem CID
  • 5234
RTECS number VZ4725000
  • 451W47IQ8X YesY
Chemical formula
Molar mass 58.44 g mol−1
Appearance Colorless crystals
Odor Odorless
Density 2.165 g/cm3
Melting point 801 °C (1,474 °F; 1,074 K)
Boiling point 1,413 °C (2,575 °F; 1,686 K)
Solubility in water
359 g/L
Solubility in ammonia 21.5 g/L
Solubility in methanol 14.9 g/L
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
−30.3·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD)
1.5442 (at 589 nm)
Crystal structure
Face-centered cubic
(see text), cF8
Space group
Fm3m, No. 225
Lattice constant
a = 564.02 pm
Coordination geometry
Octahedral (Na+)
Octahedral (Cl)
heat capacity (C)
36.79 J K−1 mol−1
Std molar
entropy (So298)
72.11 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy of
formation (ΔfHo298)
−411.12 kJ mol−1
ATC code
A12CA01 (WHO) B05CB01 (WHO), B05XA03 (WHO), S01XA03 (WHO)
Safety data sheet See: data page
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will not burn. E.g., waterHealth code 0: Exposure under fire conditions would offer no hazard beyond that of ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chlorideReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
LD50 (median dose)
3 g/kg (oral, rats)[1]
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium fluoride
Sodium bromide
Sodium iodide
Sodium astatide
Other cations
Lithium chloride
Potassium chloride
Rubidium chloride
Caesium chloride
Francium chloride
Supplementary data page
Structure and
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
Phase behaviour
Spectral data
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Sodium chloride /ˌsdiəm ˈklɔːrd/,[2] also known as salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions. With molar masses of 22.99 and 35.45 g·mol−1, respectively, 100 g of NaCl contain 39.34 g Na and 60.66 g Cl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of seawater and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms. In the form of edible or table salt it is commonly used as a condiment and food preservative. Large quantities of sodium chloride are used in many industrial processes, and it is a major source of sodium and chlorine compounds used as feedstocks for further chemical syntheses.

Salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) of solids per liter, a salinity of 3.5%.

Salt is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation.

Some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 8,000 years ago, when people living in an area in what is now known as the country of Romania were boiling spring water to extract the salts; a salt-works in China dates to approximately the same period. Salt was also prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites, Egyptians, and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, and across the Sahara in camel caravans. The scarcity and universal need for salt has led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt is used in religious ceremonies and has other cultural significance.

Salt is processed from salt mines, or by the evaporation of seawater (sea salt) or mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic soda and chlorine, and is used in many industrial processes including the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, plastics, paper pulp and many other products.

Edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which usually contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency. As well as its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods.

Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an electrolyte and osmotic solute.[3] Excessive salt consumption can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults. Such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods.[4] The World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.[5]